The method used to measure inequality of income or wealth is the Gini Coefficient. It is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini. The Gini coefficient can range from 0 to 1 and is sometimes multiplied by 100 to range between 0 and 100.
A low Gini coefficient is indicative of a more equal distribution, with 0 corresponding to perfect equality. On the other hand, a higher Gini coefficient suggests more unequal distribution, with 100 corresponding to perfect inequality.

According to the worldwide United Nations survey, India had a Gini coefficient of 0.325 in 1999-2000 (0.368 in 2004), while US had 0.408 in 2000. While Sweden had 0.230, China and Hong Kong lead the way with 0.525 in 2001. This shows that India has a long way to go in improving its level of inclusive growth.

In order to obtain a better inclusive growth, the government is required to improve India's Human Development Index (HDI). The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: health, knowledge, and income.

It was first developed by the late Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq with the collaboration of the Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen and other leading development thinkers for the first Human Development Report in 1990. It was introduced as an alternative to conventional measures of national development, such as level of income and the rate of economic growth. It is published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

The HDI provides an alternative to the common practice of evaluating a country's progress in development based on per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Currently India has an index of 0.609, while US has 0.950. The top ranking countries of the world, according to their HDI are Iceland (0.968), Norway (0.968), Canada (0.967) and Australia (0.965) respectively. India in order to improve its HDI, has to ensure equality of access and opportunities, productive employment of people; heighten the available education, health and infrastructure facilities, and provide a favorable environment for the smooth operation of state, entrepreneurial and business activities.
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Inclusivity Measurement
Present Scenario
Supply Chain

Realigning Supply Chain through :

Direct Procurement from Producers/Primary Suppliers
Use of Information & Technology
Vendor Development
Open Tendering
Ancillary Development
Targeted Procurement
Unbundling of Contract



Digvijay Singh, Dy. Manager (Materials Management)
Research & Development Center for Iron & Steel (RDCIS)
Steel Authority of India Ltd. (Ranchi)


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